You will need to recall the basic information from the Preliminary Course.
– Electronegativity: is the ability of an atom to attract electrons; the more electro-negative an atom, the stronger it will hold onto electrons in a chemical bond.
– Polar covalent bond: is a covalent bond where one of the atoms in it is more electronegative than the other, and so the bond has a slight (δ) charge.
– The order of electronegativity, from most electronegative to least, for relevant atoms is: fluorine, oxygen, chlorine, nitrogen, carbon and thenhydrogen.
– For example, a bond between oxygen and hydrogen is a polar bond because oxygen holds onto negative electrons stronger; thus, in this bond, oxygen is slightly negative.
§ Polar substances dissolve other polar substances: This is because the slightly negative end is attracted to the slightly positive end of another polar bond, forming a slight intermolecular bond.
§ Non-polar substances dissolve other non-polar substances: This is due to very weak dispersion forces between molecules.
Vid 1:Naming Alkanols
Vid 2: Ethanol as a solvent
Activity: Naming alkanols
FHI: Solubility of alkanols - In the discussion focus on the impacts of the solubility of ethanol.
Vid 1: dehydration of Ethanol to Ethylene
Vid 2 Hydration of Ethylene to Ethanol
FHI: Modelling dehydration and hydration
FHI: Fermenting glucose
How to setup the Fermentation experiment:
Activity: SHI Ethanol as a Fuel Essay (see sheet below)
If you have any questions:
How to set up tomorrow's experiment
FHI: Effect of alkanol chain length on the molar heat of combustion
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